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1.Define these words:
  • Dominant- an allele that masks over another allele
  • Hybrid-  having 2 different alleles for a particular trait
  • Phenotype-  what an individual looks like for a particular trait
  • Incomplete dominance-  when no allele is dominant.  The offspring is a blending of the 2 parents
2.Know how to do a Punnett Square;  practice here:  Black hair is dominant to blonde hair.  If a pure bred recessive Mom is crossed with a pure breed dominant Dad, what are the percent chances of their offspring having:
Black hair -  100%
Blonde hair - 0%                                    
Pure dominant  - 0%                  
Pure recessive -  0%     
Hybrid -  100%
3.How many chromosomes does a human body cell have?  23 pairs or 46
4.What does DNA stand for?  Deoxyribonucleic acid
5.How do the base pairs of a DNA molecule match up?   A with T and G with C
6.Write the three steps of DNA replication here
a.  The DNA molecule unzips
b.  The floating nitrogen bases match up with the exposed bases
c.  Two new DNA molecules form
7.DNA is made of sugars, phosphates and nitrogen base pairs.  A goes with T and G goes with C.
8.What are the alleles responsible for blood type in humans?  A, B, O, the inheritance is multiple alleles
9.the four o’clock flower shows us incomplete dominance
10.color-blindness is a sex-linked trait
11.What type of inheritance is human blood type? Multiple alleles
12.How do we represent a dominant gene in a Punnett Square?  Capitals letters
13.How do we represent a recessive gene?  Lower case letters
14.Define Heterozygous- having 2 different alleles for a particular trait
15.  A pedigree chart is used to predict disease or traits within a family. 
16. Use the chart in your binder 3-18
17.What did James Hutton contribute to the theory of evolution?  He investigated earth processes such as erosion, formation of rock, earthquakes, uplifting, glaciers, and volcanoes over a long time period
18.What did Aristotle contribute to the theory of evolution?  He began thinking about changes in organisms and grouped animals into groups according to the way they moved
19.What is the relationship between fossils and the layers of rock in the earth?  The further down you go in the layers- the simpler the organism, there are less species found there and they are older. 
20.What proof do we have that the earth is old?  Fossils, layers of sedimentary alternate with layers of igneous, and radioactive dating and isotopes.
21.List all of Charles Darwin’s contribution’s to evolution here:  collected scientific data when he sailed around the world, collaborated with other scientists, developed “Descent with Modification”
22.  The earth is about 4.6 billion years old
 22.  Bacteria can rapidly reproduce so they can evolve the quickest.
  23.  What is natural selection?  Darwin’s theory that organisms with traits best suited for their environment will be more successful. 
  1.   What is classification?  The grouping of organisms according to similar characteristics
  1.  Taxonomy is the science of classification
  1. List the contributions Linnaeus made towards classification:
    1. He devised the two word naming system we use today to classify organisms
    2. It is called Binomial Nomenclature
    3. All organisms are given a scientific name
  1. From biggest to smallest name the 7 major groups of classification.
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
  1. List all 5 Kingdoms
    1. Monera
    2. Protista
    3. Fungi
    4. Plantae
    5. Animalia
  1.   Be able to read a dichotomous key and answer questions. 
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Lynda Quick
45 East Elizabeth Street
Skaneateles, NY 13152